3 Unit(s)

Principle of measurements, errors, accuracy. Units of measurement and electrical standards. Detailed construction of measuring instruments (moving coil and moving iron meters). Types and effects of damping on these instruments. Detailed description of the wattmeter, Q-meter and semiconductor testers, circuit diagrams of synchronous and asynchronous semiconductor counters of modulo 10 and 12 using cmos and TTL integrated circuits. Digital voltmeter. Use of 7106 and 7107 integrated circuits for LED and LCD displays. Operational amplifier for measurement of ac and dc voltage and current. Introduction to the design of electronics instruments for the measurement of temperature, resistance, liquid level, speed etc. Basic concepts and examples of control systems. Introduction to Laplace transform – theories of Laplace transform, derivation of inverse transform. Use of Laplace transform in the solution of differential equations. Reduction of control problems to block diagrams. Block diagram algebra. Reduction of control problems to differential equations and solution of second order differential equation with step input, impulse input and sinusoidal input. Laplace transform and its use in the solution. Feedback, time response analysis, concept of stability, Routh Hurwitz criterion. Root locus techniques. Frequency response analysis, polar and Bode plots, Nyquist stability criteria, Nichol’s chart, compensation technique and introduction to non-linear systems.