3 Unit(s)

Maxwell’s equations; implications of Maxwell’s equations. Electromagnetic potentials. The wave equation. Propagation of waves: conductors and dielectrics, plane waves in a conducting medium, plane waves in perfect dielectric with small loss, propagation in good conductors, poynting vector, skin or penetration depth. Energy of electromagnetic waves. Reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves: reflection from a perfect conductor at oblique incidence, ratio of reflected to incident electric field strength, Brewster angle. Transmission lines: two wire Open time, coaxial cables, strip and micro strip, wave guides and optical fibres. Transmission line classification: lossless line, low-less line, low frequency line, high frequency line, distortionless lines. Phase and group delay.